Increasing the Reliability of Existing Retaining Walls
Sokolov Nikolai Sergeevich1,2
1NPF LLC “FORST”, 109a, ul. Kalinina, 428000, Cheboksary, Russian Federation
2Federal State-Funded Educational Institution of Higher Education, IN Ulianov Chuvash State University, 15, Moskovskiy pr., 428015, Cheboksary, Russian Federation
NS Sokolov, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), Associate Professor, Director, Federal State-Funded Educational Institution of Higher Education, IN Ulianov Chuvash State University, 15, Moskovskiy pr., 428015, Cheboksary, Russian Federation.
The problem of increasing the bearing capacity of foundations is always an urgent problem in modern geotechnical construction. With additional increased external loads on existing retaining structures, the use of traditional technologies to ensure their stability is not always justified. Often there is an urgent need to use non-standard methods of strengthening the bases. There are frequent cases of using existing retaining reinforced concrete structures for new additional loads from newly built objects. In such cases, the use of EDT bored piles allows solving complex geotechnical problems associated with the possible strengthening of overloaded foundations.
Keywords: Geotechnical Construction, EDT Electric Discharge Technology, EDT Bored Pile, EDT Ground Anchors
The construction of industrial and civil facilities in cramped conditions requires a specific approach related to ensuring the safety and reliable operation of the surrounding buildings [1-11]. To solve geotechnical problems related to this problem, the electric discharge technology of EDT piles is one of the most popular [12-15].
One of the cases of geotechnical construction for a multi-storey public building in the city of Nizhny Novgorod is considered. The project for a ten-story hotel building provided for the installation of ERT bored-injection piles.
The construction of the facility was carried out in difficult engineering and geological conditions in the old bed of the Volga River. The engineering-geological section in this area is represented by the following engineering-geological elements (EGE) (from top to bottom):
|1||EGE-1||Bulk soil (non-compacted loam with sandy loam and construction debris)|
|2||EGE-2||Non-sagging hard- and soft-plastic loess loam|
|3||EGE-3||non-subsidence fluid plastic loess loam|
|4||EGE-4||Hard and soft plastic loam|
|5||EGE-5||Hard and semi-hard variegated clay|
|6||EGE-6||Clay polymictic sand|
The construction site is characterized by a high level of underground (non-pressure) water. The construction of the facility began 5 years before the start of the main construction with the erection of a foundation pit (9.0 m deep) from two rows of bored (drilled) piles with a diameter of 450.0 mm with a step of 1.0 m (see pos. 1 Figure 1 and 2). The retaining wall of the excavation was built along the adjoining streets. Directly adjacent to the foundation pit is a 10-storey large-panel residential building erected on driven piles.
The disadvantage of the constructed fence was the absence of a monolithic reinforced concrete strapping belt along the top of the injection piles. This flaw came to light only when excavating the pit. A row of fence piles from the side of the adjoining building leaned towards the pit (the maximum horizontal movement reached 85.0 mm). As a result of this situation, deformation cracks appeared on the outer walls of the residential building. At the same time, the installed gypsum beacons broke and continued to tear, thus proving the ongoing deformation of both the wall itself and the residential building. At the same time, all walls on the other sides of the pit are also deformed.
Urgently created in connection with the pre-accident situation, the emergency commission instructed the head design organization to urgently develop emergency response measures to stabilize the deformations of both the erected retaining wall and the adjoining existing building. As such measures, a scheme was developed to reinforce the retaining wall in the form of spacer structures made of steel pipes with a diameter of 1000.0 mm (see item 5 of Figure 1 and 3), located at two levels in mutually perpendicular directions. These measures helped to stabilize the critical situation that had arisen. The gypsum beacons on the residential building stopped tearing, the horizontal movements of the retaining wall were suspended. At the same time, geotechnical monitoring continued. With a design excavation depth of 9.0 m, the spacers were placed at a depth of 4.5-6.5 m.
In this frozen state, the object was more than five years.
In connection with the appearance of an investor, it was decided to erect a completely different building from the one previously planned for construction at this construction site - a ten-story public facility. At the same time, the designers had to fit into the dimensions of the site in the inner contour of the completed fence made of drilled piles (item 1 of Figure 1 and 3), and also take into account the existing schemes for reinforcing retaining walls using spacer structures made of steel pipes (see item 3 on figure 1 and 2).
The construction of buried reinforced concrete foundation structures faced a special technical difficulty for builders due to the presence of often located horizontally mounted pipes. The ideal task is a) dismantling of steel pipes and b) replacement with more advanced geotechnical reinforcement technology. At the same time, the retaining wall of the fence at the junction with the existing ten-story residential building still remains the weakest link. By a joint decision, it was decided to arrange buttresses (see pos. 3 in figure 1 and 2), supporting the pit fence near the residential building through a monolithic reinforced concrete structure (see pos. 2 in figure 1 and 3), arranged between the existing expansion constructions. The base for monolithic reinforced concrete grillages (see pos. 4 figure 1 and 3) of the buttresses was proposed to use ERT bored injection piles (pos. 2 figure 2) in the form of separate bushes for a monolithic reinforced concrete grillage, manufactured using electric discharge technology (ERT technology). The need to use EDT piles with a diameter of 0.35 m and a length of 12.0 to 19.0 m, depending on engineering and geological conditions in one or another part of the construction site, is due to the purpose of ensuring the stability of the buttress against shear from horizontal forces. It was decided to arrange buttresses with grippers: 1. Finished buttress with a set of design strength of all its elements; 2. Dismantling of one steel pipe. In this sequence, the struts are replaced with buttresses. In connection with the fact that the gap between the pipes was three meters, it was decided to use the drilling rig “Berkut” for the installation of ERT piles (see item 1, figure 2). To enter it into the annular space, the builders covered it with sand. EDT piles had to be installed in very difficult conditions between the pipes, and the removal of soil from the excavation was carried out only manually. It should be emphasized that the monolithic reinforced concrete buttresses were the load-bearing building structures for the above-ground load-bearing walls.
The work on the implementation of the above algorithm made it possible to gradually dismantle the spacer pipes. No further deformations of the retaining wall and residential building were found.
The installation of ERT bored piles for buttress foundations, buttresses, as well as the grillages themselves, were carried out by one contractor. At the same time, horizontal movements of the retaining wall and deformations of the sedimentary marks of the residential building were monitored daily, due to which there were no violations in the technological chain (algorithm) at this site: “drilling - concreting - electro-hydraulic treatment of the walls and the heel of the well - installation of reinforcement cages “.
Mandatory stages confirming the compliance with the project of the designed EDT piles for the foundations of the buttresses:
- The implementation of geotechnical work to implement the above algorithm made it possible to gradually dismantle the spacer pipes. No further deformations of the retaining wall and multi-storey residential building were found.
- Long-term observations of the technical condition of a multi-storey large-panel residential building make it possible to conclude that the decision made on the installation of monolithic reinforced concrete buttresses is technically correct.
- Ilichev VA, Mangushev RA, Nikiforova NS (2012) Experience of development of russian megacities underground space. Foundation, fundamenty i mekhanika gruntov 2: 17-20.
- Ulickij VM, Shashkin AG, Shashkin KG (2010) Geotekhnicheskoe soprovozhdenie razvitiya gorodov [Geotechnical Support of Urban Development]. Saint Petersburg: Georeconstruction 551.
- Ilichev VA, Konovalov PA, Nikiforova NS, Bulgakov LA (2004) Deformations of the Retaining Structures Upon Deep Excavations in Moscow. Proc. Of Fifth Int. Conf on Case Histories in Geotechnical Engineering, April 3-17. New York 5-24.
- Ilichev VA, Nikiforova NS, Koreneva EB (2007) Computing the evaluation of deformations of the buildings located near deep foundation tranches. Proc. of the XVIth European conf. on soil mechanics and geotechnical engineering. Madrid, Spain. Geotechnical Engineering in urban Environments 2: 581-585.
- Nikiforova NS, Vnukov DA (2011) Geotechnical cut-off diaphragms for built-up area protection in urban underground development. The pros, of the 7thI nt. Symp. Geotechnical aspects of underground construction in soft ground tc28 IS Roma, AGI, 2011, No 157NIK.
- Nikiforova NS, Vnukov DA (2004) The use of cut off of different types as a protection measure for existing buildings at the nearby underground pipelines installation. Proc. of Int. Geotech. Conf. dedicated to the Year of Russia in Kazakhstan. Almaty, Kazakhstan. 338-342.
- Petrukhin VP, Shuljatjev OA, Mozgacheva OA (2003) Effect of geotechnical work on settlement of surrounding buildings at underground construction. Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering.
- Sokolov HC, Petrov MV, Ivanov VA (2014) Problems of calculation of bored-injection piles made using discharge-pulse technology. In the collection: New in architecture, design of building structures and reconstruction. Materials of the VIII All-Russian (II International) Conference. Editorial Board: Sokolov NS (responsible editor), Kuzmin DL (responsible secretary), Plotnikov AN, Sakmarova LA, Lukin AG, Bogdanov VF, Tarasov VI 415-420.
- Sokolov NS, Sokolov AN, Sokolov SN, Glushkov VE, Glushkov AV (2017) Calculation of ERT bored injection piles of increased bearing capacity. Housing construction 11: 20-25.
- Sokolov NS, Sokolov SN, Sokolov AN (2016) Experience in restoring the building of the Vvedensky Cathedral in the city of Cheboksary. Geotechnics 1: 60-65.
- Sokolov NS, Sokolov SN, Sokolov AN, Yu P (2017) The use of ERT bored injection piles as foundations for foundations of increased bearing capacity. Industrial and civil construction. 9: 66-70.
- Nikanorova IV, Sokolov NS (2017) Construction and territorial development of landslide-prone slopes of the Cheboksary reservoir. Housing construction 9:13-19.
- Sokolov NS, Viktorova SS (2017) Research and development of a device for the manufacture of ERT borehole piles. Construction: New technologies - new equipment 12: 37-42.
- Sokolov NS, Ezhov S, Ezhova S (2017) Preserving the Natural Landscape on the Construction Site for Sustainable Ecosystem. Journal of Applied Engineering Science 15: 518-523.
- Sokolov NS (2019) Technology of increasing the bearing capacity of the base. Building materials 6: 67-71.